In the American legal estate privately practicing lawyers are dominating group - more than 700 thousand persons in first half 1990th years, or about one lawyer on 500 persons of the population.

The lawyer trade in the USA is prestigious and profitable. The reasons of high prestige of a trade root in traditions of the American society, in adherence of Americans to judicial-legal forms of a resolution of conflicts demanding legal maintenance (including protection of personal, political and other rights), and also in exclusively high role of lawyers in functioning of capitalist economy. Almost in all large corporations as a part of boards there are representatives of lawyer firms.

Despite presence of own legal services, many companies use on a constant basis services of lawyer firms. Participation of lawyers in business negotiations, the conclusion and realization of contracts, a resolution of disputes provides an accurate legal rhythm of ability to live of the American economy which basis is made by a principle of firmness of contractual relations. If you want to know more about this, check out Tennessee Lawyer CLE.

The graduate of a legal higher educational institution together with the diploma and degree doesn't find the automatic right to be engaged in lawyer practice. To become the lawyer, to take out the patent for lawyer practice, it is necessary to pass examination, to pass some kind of additional certification. And the patent stands out on the right to be engaged in lawyer practice not in general, everywhere in the USA, but only in territory of that staff where the given candidate for lawyers is going to practise.

Principle and admission conditions to lawyer practice are established by usually Supreme court of staff, however the question on the admission dares the special commission on the admission in the legal profession, formed association of lawyers of staff. The commission solves this question on the basis of studying of moral qualities of the candidate and results of examination arranged with it.

Studying of moral qualities anticipates examination and consists in research of the documents represented by the candidate, and investigation is if necessary made - gathering of additional materials, auscultation of persons which can inform any data on the candidate, etc. Examination are spent in writing and 2-3 days proceed. Examined should answer on 20-30 the questions, concerning knowledge, interpretation and applications of rules of law of staff. For many candidates - graduates of law schools this examination is difficult enough, as demands additional employment for studying of features of norms statute and a general law of concrete staff.

For business management in federal courts the permission which stands out automatically to the persons admitted to lawyer practice in staff is necessary.

In each staff there is an association of lawyers of staff. In the majority of states obligatory membership in association for all persons admitted to lawyer practice is established. Associations of lawyers as the voluntary organizations exist in minority of states, and also in big cities and counties. The national organization of lawyers with voluntary membership is the American association of lawyers.

The establishment of norms of professional etiquette, assistance to lawyers, acceptance of disciplinary actions, working out of standards of lawyer activity, assistance to right and justice perfection enters into problems of associations of lawyers and etc.

In the USA the lawyer can practise alone or as a part of small lawyer offices or large lawyer firms. To half of lawyers practises alone; together with small (2-3 persons) lawyer offices of the single make 2/3 from total number of lawyers.

However on the importance the main form of lawyer activity are large (50 persons and more) lawyer firms. Such firms, as a rule, aren't engaged in criminal cases and prefer to run business of the provided clients, mainly corporations. The lawyers working in firm, are subdivided on two categories - partners (the co-owners of firm dividing the income) and employees (the lawyers receiving the salary from firm).
The part of lawyers works in departments of public defenders - the organizations consisting on the state budget of staff and serving on a free basis accused from among deprived citizens.

There are also similar services of a legal aid deprived, financed of the federal budget. These services have appeared in the mid-sixties within the limits of programs of struggle against poverty. In 1974 the Congress has founded and financed Corporation on legal aid rendering - some kind of parent organization for all these services.

For legal service of certain categories of the population (concrete ethnic or professional groups) in many cities the societies of a legal aid existing mainly on any charitable donations and voluntary payments are organized; authorities also can allocate means to these societies.

In 1970th years there was also such form of lawyer activity, as lawyer offices - "pro bono publico". They don't run business of separate clients, and act with claims against the state or the corporations, connected with protection of the rights and interests of large categories of citizens (consumers, political active workers, voters, tax bearers) or with wildlife management and public health care (for example, claims against the enterprises polluting environment, or against building of atomic power stations).

At last, many lawyers work in legal services of the public organizations which are guided mainly for judicial-legal ways of realization of the problems. The most known and large organizations such - the American union of protection of a civil freedom, National association of assistance to development of the color population, the Center of protection of constitutional laws of citizens, National board on protection of natural resources, the National union of struggle with racial and political repressions.

In the USA there is no system of the fixed tariffs of fee of the lawyer. The fee sum is established under the arrangement with the client. In system of payment of the lawyer the hourly rate which fluctuates from 25 to 500 dollars at an o'clock is most extended. On the civil cases connected with is material-financial claims, the so-called conditional fee practises - the lawyer receives the fee only in case of a prize of business in the size of in advance caused percent from the won sum. As a whole lawyer services cost much. However departments of public defenders and service of a legal aid to the population render deprived and needy citizens of service of lawyers free of charge. Besides, the persons which affairs have important political or constitutional value can receive a free legal aid of public organizations. Last years by the federal legislation it is established also that expenses on the lawyer suffered by the party which has sued concerning the illegal governmental action and has carried case, are compensated by the government.

In the USA there are the diversified voluntary organizations of lawyers; they unite to various signs: geographical, depending on specialization, rasovo-ethnic, politiko-ideological; there are associations of women-lawyers and blind lawyers.

The largest and most influential organization of lawyers is the "American Bar Association, ABA," the largest offices in Chicago (headquarters) and Washington. Now in ABA consists about 410000 members. The Great bulk of individual members ABA is made by lawyers. Besides them lawyers of the state departments, lawyers-scientists, students of Legal High Schools can be individual members. As collective members in activity ABA take part about 35 specialized professional organizations of lawyers.

Work ABA is organized on sections, branches, committees. Its activity covers all aspects of functioning of legal system of the USA: from questions of professional etiquette before working out of bills of the important political importance. The association acts with large legislative initiatives in various branches of the right; its recommendations promote legislation unification, development of uniform standards of lawyer practice and principles of administration of justice. Decisions of the President and the Senate are based on conclusions ABA at appointment and the statement as federal judges, including members of the Supreme court of the USA, persons on posts in the higher echelon of the Ministry of Justice, federal accusers. For more info, visit Tennessee Lawyer CLE